Friday 11 November 2016

What Is The Difference Between RAM and ROM? What Is Their Use?

RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM (Read-only Memory) are the two important memory types found on a computer. RAM is fast it but can’t hold data permanently. The ROM can hold data but frequent read-write operations are not possible in this case. This article is about all the differences between RAM and ROM.
Various components of a computer house memory to store some sort of data. The hard drive is the primary storage device used to store all the important data like OS files, music, videos, etc. Other than the hard drive, we have the RAM (Random Access Memory), ROM (Read-only Memory), etc.

RAM (Random Access Memory)

After the magnetic hard drive or SSD, RAM is the biggest piece of memory which exists on the computer hardware. RAM is used to store the programs and data being used by the CPU in real time. The data on the random access memory can be read, written, and erased any number of times.
It is a volatile memory which means the data stored in the RAM evaporates the moment you cut the power. That’s one of the reasons random access memory can’t be used as a permanent storage despite the fact that it’s way faster than the traditional magnetic disk-based hard drives.
Types of RAM:
SRAM (Static RAM): It stores a bit of data using the state of a six transistor memory cell. SRAM is way faster than DRAM, but costlier.

DRAM (Dynamic RAM): It stores a bit data using a pair of transistor and capacitor which constitute a DRAM memory cell.

ROM (Read-Only Memory)

Another notable memory type present on the computer is the ROM. As the name suggests, the data on the memory can only be read by the computer. So, what’s the reason these read-only memory chips are in use when we have the RAM chips?
The ROM is a non-volatile memory, it doesn’t forget the data even if the power supply is removed. ROM is used to store firmware for the hardware which hardly gets any regular updates, for instance, the BIOS.
The data on the traditional form of ROM is hard wired to it i.e written at the time of manufacturing. Over time, the read-only memory has been developed to support erasing and rewriting of data, although, it can’t achieve the efficiency level of a random access memory.
Types of ROM:
Mask ROM: This is the type of ROM for which the data is written during the manufacturing of the memory chip.
PROM (Programmable Read-only Memory): The data is written after the memory chip has been created. It is non-volatile.
EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory): The data on this non-volatile memory chip can be erased by exposing it to high-intensity UV light.
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory): The data on this non-volatile memory chip can be electrically erased using field electron emission (Fowler–Nordheim tunneling). Modern EEPROMs are quite efficient in terms of the read-write capabilities.
The above-mentioned types were the semiconductor-based ROMs. Optical Storage media like CD-ROM is also a form of read-only memory.
Recommended: 4GB, 8GB Or 16GB; How Much RAM Do You Need?

Difference between RAM and ROM

DataThe data is not permanent but it can be altered any number of times.The data is permanent. It can be altered but only a limited number of times that too at slow speed.
SpeedIt is a high-speed memory.It is much slower than the RAM.
CPU InteractionThe CPU can access the data stored on it.The CPU can not access the data stored on it. In order to do so, the data is first copied to the RAM.
Size and CapacityLarge size with higher capacity.Small size with less capacity.
UsagePrimary memory (DRAM DIMM modules), CPU Cache (SRAM).Firmware like BIOS or UEFI. RFID tags, microcontrollers, medical devices, and at places where a small and permanent memory solution is required.
CostIt doesn’t come cheap.Way cheaper than RAM.

Winding up

Both RAM and ROM have their set of pros and cons. The ROM is cheap and can hold data permanently but it has its limitations. On the other hand, RAM is quite useful than the read-only memory but it can make a burning hole in your pocket.
ROM is not that much incompetent as you might think. The Flash memory we find on removable storage media like USB drives, SD cards, SSDs, etc. is an advanced implementation of the EEPROM type of read-only memory.

How To Enable “WhatsApp Video Calling” Feature On Your Android Smartphone?

WhatsApp Inc. is about to add video calling feature to its instant messaging app. The WhatsApp video calling feature currently in Beta testing can be tried after opting to the beta testing program. This article includes the steps to use the WhatsApp video calling feature.
It has been recently known that the much-awaited video calling feature has arrived on the instant messaging platform WhatsApp. Other messaging apps including Messenger and the recently launched Google Duo already have the video calling functionality. In this article we have mentioned the steps by which you can try the WhatsApp video calling feature which is currently in the beta testing stage.

How to enable video calling in WhatsApp?

We tried this method on Android devices. Here are the steps to enable video calling in WhatsApp instant messenger.
  1. On your Android device, visit the following link:
    Open Chrome on your Android (with your Google account signed in), search WhatsApp beta tester and visit the first link or the link which looks similar to the one mentioned above.
    Note: Make sure you have used the same Google account to setup your Android device.
  2. Tap Become A Tester button.
  3. Tap Download the WhatsApp Messenger app on Google Play.
  4. Now, the WhatsApp in the Play Store will appear as Beta.
  5. Update the app from there and you’re done.
Now, you can enjoy the video calling feature on WhatsApp.

Rollback to the normal app

If you’re done with the video calling feature on WhatsApp, you can follow these steps to get back the normal WhatsApp version:
  1. Visit the same link mentioned in Step 1 above.
  2. Tap Leave the program.
  3. Go to the Play Store and update WhatsApp from there.
So, this method was to give you an idea of the upcoming video calling feature on WhatsApp.
If you have something to add, tell us in the comments below

Tuesday 8 November 2016

Contrary to reports, Nokia will be launching its Android smartphones only in 2017

Ever since the first of Nokia Android smartphones were spotted on the benchmarking websites, Nokia fanboys and prospective smartphone buyers have been eagerly awaiting the erstwhile feature phone king to launch its first Android smartphone.
After it was confirmed that the first of Nokia Android device, Nokia D1C was, in fact, a 13.8-inch tablet running on Android 7.0 Nougat, Nokia fans were awaiting the release of the tablet and other Nokia Android smartphones during the busy holiday season of 2016. However, new reports indicate that Nokia’s four Android devices (1 Android Tablet and 3 Android smartphones) will be available only in the first half of 2017.
The news was confirmed after a company called HMD Global purchased the rights to manufacture, sell and advertise all Nokia smartphones. According to a new report on Adweek, HMD Global will kick off a huge marketing campaign for the four Nokia smartphones only in early 2017. This means that the Finnish smartphone manufacturer plans to launch its first Android smartphone only next year.
In fact, HMD Global has chosen the famous ad agency, Mother as its lead global agency to make advertisements for Nokia Android smartphones. Both companies have already confirmed the deal and offered comments on the matter.
Nokia is a truly iconic, globally recognized and trusted brand. As the exclusive licensee of the Nokia brand for mobile phones and tablets, our ambition was to find a like-minded agency who grasped both the opportunity and responsibility in bringing a new product range to market. We are confident that in Mother we have found a partner who can help us do so for a new generation of consumers around the world,” said HMD Global CMO Pekka Rantala stated.
Rumors suggest that the Nokia Android smartphones will feature QHD displays, metal shells 22.6MP camera and top of the class batteries like the old Nokia feature phones. Also, Nokia smartphones are speculated to feature high-end Snapdragon 820 processors together with water and dust resistance features.
From the above news, it is confirmed that the first of Nokia Android smartphones will only be available to buyers in the first half of 2017. Those buyers who had been putting off buying new Android smartphones till the holiday season in expectation of buying Nokia’s first Android offerings will have to put off their buying plans till 2017. Their patience would be well worth it provided Nokia comes out with quality Android smartphones like the rugged and long lasting Nokia 1100 and 3100 phones it is remembered for.

Here are some websites that every programmer should visit at least once!

The world of technology giving rise to different kind of jobs, skill sets, and programming languages. As a student who wants to learn programming, one must learn that every day there new coding languages being written, new frameworks being created and new systems emerging. You will be surprised to know that a whopping 300 different programming languages being used in one form or the other.
Since, it is difficult to learn all those languages, as a programmer, it is very important to keep one’s eyes and ears open to the emerging trends so that one doesn’t lose out on the potential opportunities. Over the years there have been several articles on the websites which every programmer should bookmark and follow but the articles always list the same 10-15 top sites like CodeAcademy, Udemy, Coursera, KhanAcademy etc.
In this article, we are going to list some alternate websites which are a must follow for all those who want to learn programming. Some of these sites offer great depth of knowledge while others give free tutorials to learn to code. The websites are listed in no particular order and offer the best there is in programming.

Here are the best websites a programmer should visit!

Programming Practice and Contest : 

Every programmer needs to practice coding so that he/she can stay in the loop. There is this story about a programmer who automated his job for six years, spent his time surfing and playing games on company money all the while drawing his salary and in the meantime forgot how to code. If you as a programmer don’t practice what you have learned, you might easily forget it. Here are some top sites where you can practice programming and take part in coding contests.


The below websites offer great tutorials for learning programming. There are some sites which offer programming puzzles and problems which need to solve.

Social Interaction

Apart from learning programming, a coder always needs to be in touch with the real world. The reasons for this is that technology is very fluid  and dynamic. What will work today won’t even be touched upon tomorrow. To know the latest from the world of programming, you need to bookmark the below sites.

Must Read

Here are some websites that you have to visit at least once.

Android App

Coding Calendar is one App that every programmer and wannabe coder should have on his/her smartphone. The Coding Calendar App notifies you about various programming contests happening on sites Hackerrank, Hackerearth, Topcoder and much more

Facebook ‘pauses’ WhatsApp data sharing after United Kingdom’s ICO intervention

After Facebook-owned WhatsApp announced its plans to share user data such as phone numbers and preferences with its parents, it has been at loggerheads with privacy groups from the world over.  Earlier in September, Facebook and WhatsApp were taken to a provincial High Court in India over its data sharing plans while Germany’s privacy watchdog has already banned Facebook or WhatsApp from sharing user data. Now Facebook and WhatsApp have been asked to ‘pause’ the data sharing plans till the Information Commissioner completes its investigations into privacy breach.
A controversial decision this summer by Facebook-owned messaging giant WhatsApp to share data of its users with its parent company — including for advertising purposes has put it at war with civil privacy groups as well as European privacy watchdogs.
In a strongly worded blog post information commissioner Elizabeth Denham noted that, “I had concerns that consumers weren’t being properly protected, and it’s fair to say the enquiries my team have made haven’t changed that view. I don’t think users have been given enough information about what Facebook plans to do with their information, and I don’t think WhatsApp has got valid consent from users to share the information. I also believe users should be given ongoing control over how their information is used, not just a 30 day window.”
“We’ve set out the law clearly to Facebook, and we’re pleased that they’ve agreed to pause using data from UK WhatsApp users for advertisements or product improvement purposes,” she adds.
Denham also hits out at “vague terms of service” for generally failing to give consumers “the protection we need”.
Readers would remember that the Facebook-owned WhatsApp updated its privacy policy in September which offered users an opt out of sharing their data with Facebook but default opted them in — unless they clicked to read the terms more closely and turned the sharing option off, having understood what the toggle represented. Users were also given a 30-day window to revoke consent via the settings in the app — after which they would be unable to withdraw consent.
Facebook spokesperson rejected criticism and said that, “WhatsApp designed its privacy policy and terms update to give users a clear and simple explanation of how the service works, as well as choice over how their data is used. These updates comply with applicable law, and follow the latest guidance from the UK Information Commissioner’s Office.”
Facebook’s spokesperson added: “We hope to continue our detailed conversations with the ICO and other data protection officials, and we remain open to working collaboratively to address their questions.”
WhatsApp data sharing plans seem to be in jeopardy in Europe but it remains to be seen whether it is challenged in US courts.

Friday 4 November 2016

Top 10 countries for computer programming

Recently, HackerRank published a study showing which countries have the best developers. HackerRank is a free coding practice website that allows developers to enhance their coding skills by solving challenges. In other words, the HackerRank platform is the destination for the best engineers to perfect their skills and companies to find top engineers. The company has ranked 1.5 million developers based on the speed and accuracy with which people complete the challenges.
This study ranked which countries were best overall, which countries ruled in each type of challenge, which types of challenges were most popular, and which languages each country favoured.
The United States and India overall put up disappointing numbers despite having the most participants on the site with U.S. coming at 28th position and India following a little behind at the 31st position.
Let’s have a look at who’s made into the top list and why?
1 China
In HackerRank’s overall list, China clinched the 1st position for the best performing computer programmers. When it comes to specific types of challenges, China is the best performing country in data structure, mathematics, and functional programming.
2 Russia
It is no surprise that Russia’s strong performance in HackerRank’s challenges has got them to this list. Russia is the most dominant country when it comes to algorithms, which is the most popular kind of challenge on the site.
3 Poland
Java is the preferred language among many of the HackerRank’s users. It is particularly remarkable to see Poland in the list, as it has won Java challenges on HackerRank’s site. Poland also offers coding classes in their schools like many of the other countries on this list.
4 Switzerland
Switzerland is one of the most dominant countries across the board, as it scores the top five in nine of them of the 15 top types of challenges on HackerRank. Switzerland was also the origin of Pascal, one of the first computer programming languages. Additionally, Switzerland was also ranked no. 1 in the Global Innovation Index’s 2016 report.
5 Hungary
Hungary tops the world in performance on tutorial challenges and comes in at a remarkable no. 5 spot in the rankings. Hungary was one of the first European countries to implement computer programming classes into their education system, in both primary and secondary schools.
6 Japan
Japan is making great strides in AI (artificial intelligence). So, it’s no surprise when it comes to HackerRank’s AI challenges that Japan is the best country in the world. For instance, early this summer, the University of Tokyo was apparently able to save a woman’s life using AI to diagnose her cancer.
7 Taiwan
Scoring high in database, algorithm, functional programming and data structure challenges, Taiwan comes in at no. 7. The survey found that Python is the dominant language.
8 France
French programmers dominate C++ challenges, according to the HackerRank study. One reason for this is that France started providing programming classes in elementary schools in June 2014.
9 Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is dominant in shell scripting challenges, which makes the country stand at the no. 9 spot on the list of best programmers. They also ran second in mathematics challenges on HackerRank.
10 Italy
When it comes to HackerRank’s database and tutorial challenges, this country is specifically impressive as it ranks second in both those areas. It is not only HackerRank that thinks extremely high of Italy. Apple announced a new school for 600 programmers at The University of Napoli Federico II on the coast of Italy
well its a suprise that usa and india are not on the top.

How Safe Is It To Charge Your Laptop With Your Friend’s Charger That Has Different Specifications

A charger or ‘power adapter’ is the soul of your laptop. Without a charger, your laptop has zero use. It mostly happens when you forget your charger at  home when you are out somewhere. Or your charger goes kaput due to an internal fault and your new charger will only arrive in a weeks time. These are some difficult situations that every laptop user faces. In such situations, there is no option but to borrow chargers from your friends or use an  old charger lying around.
Does using such a charger create problems? Does a charger of a different wattage and different make harm your device? Is it safe to use a power supply with a different configuration? These are some questions that every laptop users face and we will try to answer them in this article.

What if I use a different make power adapter to charge my laptop?

First and foremost you have to understand how a  power adapter works. A power adapter basically converts the normal local electric input voltage (110-120 Volts in the United States, Most other areas 220-240 Volts) into DC output that charges and runs our electronic devices. The normal DC output is 12 volts but it may differ in varying devices. Power adapters are a bit like canned food. Some manufacturers put a lot of information on the label. Others put just a few details. And if there is no information on the label, proceed with extreme caution.

The most important details for you to look out  are the voltage and the current. Voltage is measured in volts (V) and current is measured in amps (A).  (You’ve probably also heard about resistance (Ω), but this doesn’t usually show up on power adapters.)
The other important term to know is polarity. For direct currents, there is a positive pole (+) and a negative pole (-). For an adapter to work, the positive plug must mate with a negative receptacle or vice versa. Direct current, by nature, is a one-way street, and things just won’t work if you try to go up the downspout.
The next thing to match is the connector. Different laptop manufacturers come with different type of connectors supposedly to be able to market their chargers and other accessories.
So, if your charger is has gone kaput or you have forgotten it at home, here are a few things you should note while connecting your friends power adapter to your laptop.
  1. The connector should be the same. Kindly check if the size and shape of the male connector on the power adapter matches with the female socket on your laptop
  2. Once you get a charger with matching connector shape and size, kindly check the voltage and polarity. If you have forgotten your charger at home or someplace else, you can get the exact specifications of your power adapter online.
  3. Make sure your friends charger has equal or higher Amps
If you have found a charger which checks the above three points, you should have no issues using your friend’s charger to charge your laptop. Remember, using a charger with the wrong voltage rating can potentially damage your laptop. This is typically caused by too high voltage. But using a charger with too high current won’t damage your laptop. Using a charger with too low current rating might fry the power supply, but not the laptop

Hackers Use Mirai Botnet 14 To Shut Down The Internet Of An Entire Country

Experts have been arguing about how hackers are conspiring to bring down the entire Internet infrastructure and plunge the world into ‘cyber darkness.’ Such a scenario has been actually predicted by a security researcher, Bruce Schneier. In fact, Schneier says that some unknown entity is already working on bringing down the whole Internet.
This was proved when a cyber attack against Dyn DNS provider, which brought down the Internet to the entire Mid-West and the Eastern United States on 21st and 22nd October and now hackers have managed to bring down the Internet services to the African country of Liberia.
An unprecedented cyber attack has knocked entire Liberia’s internet offline, as hackers targeted the nation’s infrastructure using the same Mirai botnets that shut down hundreds of the world’s most popular websites at the end of last month.
The attack, which is the same used to shut off sites including Twitter, Netflix, eBay and Reddit, fuels fears that cyber criminals are practicing ways to sabotage the US’ internet when the country heads to the polls on November 8.
Hackers used Botnet 14, a Mirai botnet, knocked an entire Liberian Internet offline. Though the task for the hackers was easy considering that Liberia has a population of about 4.5 million and only 10 percent of these have Internet access which is provided by two Internet service providers using a single optic fiber cable.
Security researcher Kevin Beaumont made a post on Medium detailing the Liberia hack attack and Mirai Botnet 14. He says that DDoS attack against the Liberian ISPs was one of the largest ever recorded. The attacks were launched in short bursts of few minutes, over the course of a week.
Here is all you should know about Mirai botnets and how they operate
Beaumont has called the botnet Shadows Kill as warns security researchers before going in for the kill. “Over the past week we’ve seen continued short duration attacks on infrastructure in the nation of Liberia,” says K Beaumont “The attacks are extremely worrying because they suggest a Mirai operator who has enough capacity to seriously impact systems in a nation state.”
No one has yet claimed responsibility for the Liberia attack or the one against Dyn, but they are very similar in nature, according to experts.
“Given the volume of traffic, it appears to be owned by the actor which attacked Dyn,” said Beaumont.
The source code, or instructions for how to use, the Mirai botnet was released online earlier this year and is free to use for anyone with the technical understanding.  It remains to be seen what will be the next Mirai botnet ahead of the November 8 Presidential Elections and the busy holiday season.

Is Apple Working On An iPhone That Bends?

It looks like Apple is working on an iPhone that can bend in the middle. According to tech site Patently Apple, Apple has managed to get the patent for the bendable and foldable mobile screen technology that the Cupertino giant has been exploring since 2013.
The site explains that this new patent shows “a perspective view of an illustrative electronic device such as a future iPhone that bends along a flexible portion such as a flexible seam associated with a hinge.”
All the technical details are included in the patent such as how a bendable screen would work, but it seems like it is basically a new technology that would be centred on conductive carbon nanotube structures that are flexible and resistant to strong pressure and cracks.
From the patent:
Conductive carbon nanotube paths can form signal paths that are flexible and resistant to cracking. The carbon nanotube structures may be incorporated into signal cables such as flexible printed circuit cables, rigid printed circuit boards, printed circuits that include rigid portions with flexible tails (sometimes referred to as “rigid flex”), portions of display structures, portions of touch sensors such as capacitive touch sensor arrays for displays or track pads, camera structures, antenna structures, housing structures, internal device structures, electrical components, substrates, brackets, housing walls, other structures, or combinations of these structures.
While patents are filed all the time, it is not necessary that every patent is converted into a finished commercial product or even a prototype. Whether or not, we will be able to a foldable iPhone from Apple, only time will tell.